a. A system of joints in coal oblique to the bedding, at an angle of about 35 degrees to 75 degrees . Backs are usually perfectly tight and have polished cheeks which suggest a certain amount of movement. Back may be applied to the principal cleat. See also: backs; cleat.
b. The roof or upper part of any underground mining cavity.
c. The ore between a level and the surface, or between two levels. See also: back of ore
d. That part of a lode which is nearest the surface relative to any working part of a mine, thus the back of the level or stope is that part of the unstoped lode which is above. See also: back of lode
e. A joint, usually a strike joint, which is perpendicular to the direction of working.
f. As applied to an arch, the outer or upper surface.
g. The pavilion of a gemstone.
Source: Dictionary of Mining, Mineral, and Related Terms












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