impact: The consequences of a policy, both in its immediate policy area and in other areas.

impeachment: Under the Constitution, the formal proceedings against the President or other federal officials, who may be removed from office if convicted of �Treason, Bribery or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.�

implementation: The action, or actions, taken by government to carry out a policy.

implied powers: Powers of the national government that flow from its enumerated powers and the �elastic clause� of the Constitution.

impoundment: The practice, curtailed in 1974, whereby a President refused to spend funds appropriated by Congress.

independent executive agencies: Agencies that report to the President in the same manner as departments, even though they are not part of any cabinet department.

independent expenditures: The spending of money on behalf of candidates but without their cooperation.

independent expenditures: The spending of money on behalf of candidates without their cooperation.

independent regulatory commissions: See regulatory agencies.

Indiana ballot: Also known as the party-column ballot. Used in a majority of states, it lists the candidates of each party in a row or column, beside or under the party emblem. Allows for and encourages straight-ticket voting.

indictment: A finding by a grand jury that there is enough evidence against an individual to warrant a criminal trial.

inherent powers: Powers of government that the national government may exercise simply because it exists as a government, such as the right to conduct foreign relations.

initiative: A method of amending state constitutions, used in seventeen states, under which proposed constitutional amendments can be placed on the ballot if enough signatures are obtained on a petition.

injunction: An order from a court to require or prevent an action.

instructed delegate: A legislator who automatically mirrors the will of the majority of his constituents.

interest groups: Private groups that attempt to influence the government to respond to the shared attitudes of their members.

interstate compacts: Agreements between or among states made with the approval of Congress.

interventionism: A strand of American foreign policy that was visible by the end of the nineteenth century; it included �gunboat diplomacy� and other forms of military involvement in various parts of the world.

isolationism: A policy of avoiding foreign entanglements.

item veto: The power of most governors to disapprove particular parts of appropriations bills.

   

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