Jim Crow laws: Laws that were designed to segregate black and white Americans.

Joint Chiefs of Staff: The chairman, the chiefs of staff of the three armed services, and, when marine corps matters are under consideration, the Commandant of the marines. By law, the Joint Chiefs of Staff advise the President and the Secretary of Defense and are the chiefs of their respective military services.

joint committees: Committees composed of both representatives and senators.

judicial activism: A philosophy often associated with justices Frankfurter, Brandeis, and Holmes, that requires the Supreme Court to avoid constitutional questions when possible, and to uphold acts of Congress unless they clearly violate a specific section of the Constitution.

judicial review: The power of the Supreme Court to declare acts of Congress or actions by the executive - or laws and actions at any level of local, state, and federal government - unconstitutional.

jungle primary: A form of primary election, also known as a blanket primary, in which voters can pick and choose among two or more political party slates, crossing back and forth to select nominees for each office.

jus sanguinis: Right of blood. Under this principle, the citizenship of a child is determined by that of the parents.

jus soli: Right of soil. Under this principle, citizenship is conferred by place of birth.

   

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