Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Detection of mm-wave transient sources
Sigurd Naess, Nick Battaglia, J.Richard Bond, Erminia Calabrese, Steve K. Choi, Nicholas F. Cothard, Mark Devlin, Cody J. Duell, Adriaan J. Duivenvoorden, Jo Dunkley, Rolando Dünner, Patricio A. Gallardo, Megan Gralla, Yilun Guan, Mark Halpern, J. Colin Hill, Matt Hilton, Kevin M. Huffenberger, Brian J. Koopman, Arthur B. Kosowsky, Mathew S. Madhavacheril, Jeff McMahon, Federico Nati, Michael D. Niemack, Lyman Page, Bruce Partridge, Maria Salatino, Neelima Sehgal, David Spergel, Suzanne Staggs, Edward J. Wollack, Zhilei Xu
We report on the serendipitous discovery of three transient mm-wave sources using data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. The first, detected at RA = 273.8138, dec = -49.4628 at ∼50σ total, brightened from less than 5 mJy to at least 1100 mJy at 150 GHz with an unknown rise time shorter than thirteen days, during which the increase from 250 mJy to 1100 mJy took only 8 minutes. Maximum flux was observed on 2019-11-8. The source's spectral index in flux between 90 and 150 GHz was positive, α=1.5±0.2. The second, detected at RA = 105.1584, dec = -11.2434 at ∼20σ total, brightened from less than 20 mJy to at least 300 mJy at 150 GHz with an unknown rise time shorter than eight days. Maximum flux was observed on 2019-12-15. Its spectral index was also positive, α=1.8±0.2. The third, detected at RA = 301.9952, dec = 16.1652 at ∼40σ total, brightened from less than 8 mJy to at least 300 mJy at 150 GHz over a day or less but decayed over a few days. Maximum flux was observed on 2018-9-11. Its spectrum was approximately flat, with a spectral index of α=−0.2±0.1. None of the sources were polarized to the limits of these measurements. The two rising-spectrum sources are coincident in position with M and K stars, while the third is coincident with a G star.