Nonlinear Alfvén Wave Model of Stellar Coronae and Winds from the Sun to M dwarfs
Takahito Sakaue, Kazunari Shibata
M dwarf's atmosphere and wind is expected to be highly magnetized. The nonlinear propagation of Alfvén wave could play a key role in both heating the stellar atmosphere and driving the stellar wind. Along this Alfvén wave scenario, we carried out the one-dimensional compressive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation about the nonlinear propagation of Alfvén wave from the M dwarf's photosphere, chromosphere to the corona and interplanetary space. Based on the simulation results, we develop the semi-empirical method describing the solar and M dwarf's coronal temperature, stellar wind velocity, and wind's mass loss rate. We find that M dwarfs' coronae tend to be cooler than solar corona, and that M dwarfs' stellar winds would be characterized with faster velocity and much smaller mass loss rate compared to those of the solar wind.