Regulating Star Formation in Nearby Dusty Galaxies: Low Photoelectric Efficiencies in the Most Compact Systems
Jed McKinney, Lee Armus, Tanio Diaz-Santos, Vassilis Charmandaris, Hanae Inami, Yiqing Song, Aaron Evans
Star formation in galaxies is regulated by the heating and cooling in the interstellar medium. In particular, the processing of molecular gas into stars will depend strongly on the ratio of gas heating to gas cooling in the neutral gas around sites of recent star-formation. In this work, we combine mid-infrared (mid-IR) observations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), the dominant heating mechanism of gas in the interstellar medium (ISM), with [C II], [O I], and [Si II] fine-structure emission, the strongest cooling channels in dense, neutral gas. The ratio of IR cooling line emission to PAH emission measures the photoelectric efficiency, a property of the ISM which dictates how much energy carried by ultraviolet photons gets transferred into the gas. We find that star-forming, IR luminous galaxies in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) with high IR surface densities have low photoelectric efficiencies. These systems also have, on average, higher ratios of radiation field strength to gas densities, and larger average dust grain size distributions. The data support a scenario in which the most compact galaxies have more young star-forming regions per unit area, which exhibit less efficient gas heating. These conditions may be more common at high-z, and may help explain the higher star-formation rates at cosmic noon. We make predictions on how this can be investigated with JWST.