Relationship Between Urban Green Spaces and Cancer: A Scoping Review

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Marion Porcherie, Nyan Linn, Anne Roué Le Gall, Marie-Florence Thomas, Emmanuelle Faure, Stéphane Rican, Jean Simos, Nicola Cantoreggi, Zoé Vaillant, Linda Cambon, Jean-Philippe Regnaux

Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: urban green spaces; cancer; risk factors; contributing factors; scoping review

This scoping study aims to explore the relationships between urban green spaces (UGSs) and cancer. We followed the PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (protocol published in 2018). Eligibility criteria for papers were: 1) to be concerned with UGSs, 2) reporting effects of UGSs on cancer-related outcomes including direct or indirect measures, 3) reporting randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, case studies, observational studies, non-comparative studies, 4) in English or French. The search covered primary studies in the published and unpublished (grey) literatures searching by hand and electronic databases (MEDLINE, Green File, CINAHL and ScienceDirect). Among 1703 records screened by two reviewers independently, 29 were included for qualitative synthesis. We classify the cancers concerned and the effects reported i.e. protective effect, risk or without association. The most investigated cancers are bladder, breast and lung cancer. Our study also identified contributing factors and their mediating effects between UGSs and cancer. Results highlight the wide variety of possible mediating factors between the use of green spaces and cancer occurrence, remission and/or prevention. Knowledge gaps and future research perspectives should be oriented to qualitative research on protective factors, the role of mental health in recovering from cancer and health inequalities.

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