Alternative Perspective on Rapid Wine Oxidation through Changes in Gas-Phase Volatile Concentrations, Highlighted by Matrix Component Effects
A new perspective is presented to investigate the sensorially relevant gas-phase concentrations of volatile compounds in wine. This is achieved by measuring the partition coefficients and matrix-phase concentrations of volatiles using static headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (SHS-GC-IMS). Physicochemical properties that can contribute to the partition behaviors of ten volatile esters, such as hydrophobicity and matrix temperature, are also discussed. Partition coefficients are then linked to quantitative measurements to obtain partial pressures, which describes the availability of volatile compounds in the gas phase. The concept of partition coefficients and partial pressure have then been applied to a time series of aroma changes due to oxidation in commercial wines. As a follow-up study, a full factorial design was devised to inspect the impact of three common wine matrix components, namely, copper, polyphenols and ascorbic acid, on the partial pressure changes after 30-day oxidation treatment in either full-alcohol or low-alcohol simulated wine matrices. Interesting interactive effects between antioxidant behaviors and alcohol levels were elucidated, especially around the controversial use of ascorbic acid in winemaking. These results can guide winemakers who wish to minimize oxidative damage to wine aroma during wine storage or bulk transport, where ullage may be present or continual oxygen ingress may be occurring.