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- A fine-grained igneous rock with no quartz or orthoclase, composted of about 75 percent plagioclase feldspars, balance ferromagnesian silicates. Important as lavas; possibly derived by fractional crystallization from basaltic magma. Widely characteristic of mountain-making processes around borders of Pacific Ocean. Confined to continental sectors.
Source: Leet, L. Don. 1982. Physical Geology, 6th Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
- A dark-colored, fine-grained extrusive rock that, when porphyritic, contains phenocrysts composed primarily of zoned sodic plagioclase (esp. andesine) and one or more of the mafic minerals (e.g., biotite, hornblende, pyroxene), with a groundmass composed generally of the same minerals as the phenocrysts, although the plagioclase may be more sodic, and quartz is generally present; the extrusive equivalent of diorite. Andesite grades into latite with increasing alkali feldspar content, and into dacite with more alkali feldspar and quartz. It was named by Buch in 1826 from the Andes Mountains, South America. AGI
Source: Dictionary of Mining, Mineral, and Related Terms