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  1. Arch.
  2. Curved support for roofs of openings in mines; constructed archways in masonry.
  3. The development of peripheral cracks around an excavation due to the difference in stress between the skin rock and the rock in the stress ring. See also: V-arching
  4. The folding of schists, gneisses, or sediments into anticlines.
  5. The transfer of stress from a yielding part of a soil or rock mass to adjoining less yielding or restrained parts of the mass. ASCE
  6. The fretting away of the periphery of a rock tunnel, usually converting it from a rectangular to a circular or elliptical section. The effect in the back is sometimes referred to as the "natural arch." The putting in of a lining built to an arch shape should not be referred to as arching but as "lining" or "putting in the arch." Spalding
    Source: Dictionary of Mining, Mineral, and Related Terms

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