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- in its political manifestation, conflict exacts an ever-increasing toll in human lives and misery.
- A view that sees society and social phenomena, past, present, and future, as a result of conflict (a social process). Conflict is seen as a creative, inevitable fact of social life and not merely a destructive avoidable deviation. Conflict is generally held to be inevitable because of the inherent limitation of a finite universe of "knowable" social reality and because of misunderstandings in communication. Conflict is usually direct conscious struggle between individuals or groups for the same goal (as compared with competition, which can take place without contact and individuals and groups being aware of others striving for the same goal) with the intent of the individuals or groups involved to inhibit the goal striving and goal attainment of others.